Markers Used By The Lindsay DNA Project
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Y-Chromosome STR Marker Systems Used By The Lindsay* Surname DNA Project

Listed below are the forty-three (43) Y-Chromosome STR marker systems that are being used for the International Lindsay Surname DNA Project.

Table 1 - Y-Chromosome STR Marker Systems Used By The International Lindsay Surname DNA Project

DNA Heritage DNA Marker #  Y-STR Locus - Standard Designation # Repeated Motif
1 DYS19
2 DYS385a  
3 DYS385b  
4 DYS388  
5 DYS389-1*  
6 DYS389-2* includes the segment DYS389-1  
7 DYS390  
8 DYS391  
9 DYS392  
10 DYS393  
11 DYS426  
12 DYS437  
13 DYS438  
14 DYS439  
15 DYS447  
16 DYS454  
17 DYS455  
18 DYS460   
19 DYS461  


21 DUS635
22 GGAAT1B07  
23 YCAII-a  
24 YCAII-b  
25 Y-GATA-A10  
26 Y-GATA-H4.1  
27 DYS441
28 DYS442
29 DYS444
30 DYS445
31 DYS446
32 DYS448
33 DYS449
34 DYS452
35 DYS456
36 DYS458
37 DYS459a
38 DYS459b
39 DYS463
40 DYS464a
41 DYS464b
42 DYS464c
43 DYS464d

* DYS389 Marker Mutations  You need to use caution in counting mutations for Y-chromosome marker DYS389. The loci DYS389-1 and DYS389-2 move in tandem.  DYS389-1 refers to the length of only one portion of the DYS389 marker.  DYS389-2 refers to the total length.  Therefore, when there is a mutation at DYS389-1, it will also appear to be in DYS389-2.  When comparing one individual to another, if the values for two individuals differ by one repeat at DYS389-1, that represents a one-step mismatch.  If the values for the same two individuals differ by one repeat at DYS389-2, then it should only be counted as one combined mutation for DYS389-1 & DYS389-2.  If the marker values for two individuals differ by one repeat mismatch at DYS389-1 and a two repeat mismatch at DYS389-2, then it should be counted as two separate mismatches.

There is a second and potentially even more confusing situation that could occur at marker DYS389.  Let's assume that the marker values for two individuals differ by one repeat mismatch at DYS389-1 and find a perfect match at DYS389-2 for these same two individuals.  This should be counted as two separate marker mismatches since the value mismatch at DYS389-1 was offset by a mutation in the opposite "direction" from the value previously found at DYS389-1 and appears to cancel out the mutation that occurred at DYS389-1.

However, keep in mind there can be a mutation at DYS389-2 that will not affect DYS389-1. 

Values for DYS389-1 and DYS389-2 from both Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) and Relative Genetics laboratories are comparable.  In order to compare Oxford Ancestors values for DYS389 to values from FTDNA and Relative Genetics, you must first convert the OA values by doing the following.

First add the numeric value three (3) to the Oxford Ancestors value for DYS389i.  This represents the comparable DYS389-1.  Next add the new DYS389-1 value from the preceding exercise to the Oxford Ancestors value for DYS389ii-i.  This becomes the comparable value for DYS389-2.  Example: if your Oxford Ancestors numbers are 9 and 15, you would use 12 and 27 for comparison to FTDNA and DNA Heritage values for marker DYS389.


* It has been established that the use of the Lindsay surname, throughout this web site, implies all the accepted different spellings of the surname found in the site Orthography section.  

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